19 January 2021
Intercropping for sustainability

Two-day Conference with AAB, DIVERSify and ReMIX at Reading University

6 September 2021
Organic World Congress 2021

New date! Postponed from September 2020

12 August 2020
New US study on glyphosate and organic diets

Glyphosate levels in children and adults drop dramatically after one week of eating organic

30 July 2020
ORC welcomes the National Food Strategy

The first major reviewof our food system in 75 years

29 April 2020
Tim Bennett is the new Chair of ORC

Former NFU president takes on chairmanship of Organic Research Centre

Performance and nutritional properties of minor cereals

Category: News
28 January 2020

Performance and Nutritional Properties of Einkorn, Emmer and Rivet Wheat in Response to Different Rotational Position and Soil Tillage

Rivet - miracle

ORC's Ambrogio Costanzo and Dominic Amos are co-authors of this open access paper (published in Sustainability) in cooperation of the University of Bologna, arising out of the DIVERSIFOOD project. This is one of the first studies of this type, with a dataset of agronomic, productive and nutritional properties of accessions of minor cereals tested in organic farming, different rotational positions and tillage systems in England.


Einkorn, emmer, and rivet are three species of wheat that have largely been neglected in modern agriculture. There is a revived interest in these species as potentially successful alternatives to mainstream wheat in organic and low-input cropping systems and as sources of highly nutritious food. However, the availability of literature studies concerning rotational positions and soil tillage management is still scarce. The aim of this study was to explore the field (cover, disease resistance, yield) and quality performance (protein, fats, fiber, polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity) of these species when organically grown in the United Kingdom. As part of the H2020 DIVERSIFOOD project, different cultivars of each species, including landraces, populations, old varieties, and where available, commercial varieties, were included in the experiment. Rotational position and tillage systems significantly affected the main agronomic performance of the minor cereals investigated, suggesting that low fertility and shallow-non-inversion tillage might be suitable options to manage tall species. Emmer showed the highest incidence of foliar diseases, whereas einkorn and rivet wheat appeared quasi-immune to the main fungal diseases (stripe rust, septoria). In addition, nutritional and nutraceutical investigation showed that the rotational position and soil management also affect metabolic pathways differently by species and within species, by genotype. Our results suggest a good potential to introduce these species in sustainable cropping systems. Furthermore, the interesting species and cultivar-by-management interactions observed can pave the way for future, better focused, research on these underutilised and underexplored species.

Costanzo A, Amos DC, Dinelli G, Sferrazza RE, Accorsi G, Negri L, Bosi S. Performance and Nutritional Properties of Einkorn, Emmer and Rivet Wheat in Response to Different Rotational Position and Soil Tillage. Sustainability. 2019; 11(22):6304.

Keywords: heritage grains emmer rivet wheat rotation tillage nutrition

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