Business and markets
All farmers need to earn a living and sufficient income to ensure that their businesses are sustainable. The development of specialist markets for certified organic food provides a means by which consumers can access organic food and producers and food businesses can gain some financial return for adopting practices that yield environmental and other benefits not normally compensated by the market.
Despite not using yield-enhancing inputs, organic producers achieve similar incomes to comparable non-organic farms, thanks to consumer willingness to pay a premium for products with legally-backed certification of organic authenticity. As part of this, producers have developed innovative marketing and processing initiatives and close links with consumers in new business models such as community supported agriculture.
This programme focuses on the analysis of farm incomes and costs of production, the availability and quality of organic market data, sector/ market development as well as consumer attitudes, behaviour and willingness to pay, helping producers, food businesses and policy-makers to make better informed decisions.
ORC Staff InvolvedDr. Susanne Padel, Dr. Stefano Orsini, Mr. Oliver Rubenstein, , Mr. Laurence SmithDr. Bruce Pearce, Prof. Nic Lampkin,, Ms. Anja Vieweger.
|Project title (acronym)||Funder||Description|
|CEreal REnaissance in Rural Europe: embedding diversity in organic and low-input food systems (CERERE)||EU Horizon 2020||The project will promote innovation through diversity-based ‘alternative’ cereal food systems in Europe through knowledge exchange and communities of practice adopting a bottom-up approach in multi-actor network.|
|Reviewing of international approaches to organic regulations and labelling - production, economic and market access implications for UK||Defra||The project will help to provide an evidence base for future policy direction of organic agriculture in the UK following EU exit as well as exploring the issues surrounding the potential implications of introducing an independent organic labelling system.|
|Project title (acronym)||Funder||Description|
|Transitions to agroecological systems: Farmers’ viewpoints||Scottish Natural Heritage on the behalf of the Land Use Policy Group||A study of the motivations, attitudes and experiences of farmers who have adopted agroecological farming, based on in-depth interviews with 14 farmers in England, Scotland and Wales and compared with two relevant models|
|Distribution of the added value of the organic food chain||DG AGRI||The study aims to identify and analyse the distribution of added value in the organic supply chain in the European Union.|
|The Role of Agroecology in Sustainable Intensification||Scottish Natural Heritage||Report on on the contribution that agro-ecological systems and strategies can make to sustainable intensification in the UK and European context.|
|European Data Network for Improved Transparency of Organic Markets (ODN)||European Commission (FP7)||The project aims to increase the transparency of the European organic food market through better availability of market intelligence about the sector to meet the needs of policy makers and actors involved in organic markets.|
|Evaluation of the German Programme for Organic Food and Farming Research (BOEL evaluation)||Bundesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Ernaehrung, Bonn||The Programme for Organic Agriculture (BÖL) was set up in 2001 by the German Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (then BMVEL); the relevance, effectiveness and resource efficiency of its research component was evaluated in this project.|
|Organic Farm Incomes in England and Wales||DEFRA||Analysis of financial performance of organic farming in terms of profitablity and enterprise persformance relative to previous years and in comparison to conventional based on the FBS/Defra Data Archive for 2009/10|
|Economics Analysis of Certification Systems in Organic Food and Farming (Certcost)||EC FP 7||The main project objective is to generate research based knowledge on how to improve the organic food certification system in terms of efficiency, transparency and cost effectiveness.|
|Use and efficiency of public support measures addressing organic farming in the EU (AGRIEVAL)||DG Agriculture||The project analyses public support measures addressing organic farming in relation to impact on number of organic farms, organic land area, market development and policy coherence.|
|Farm Accountancy Cost Estimation and Policy Analysis of European Agriculture (FACEPA)||European Commission (sub-contract from vTI)||Assist with the identification of cost of production for specific organic enterprises and environmental indicators using farm accountancy data (FADN)|
|The Potential for Extending Economic Farm-Level Benchmarking to Environmental and Other Aspects of Farm Performance (EBM)||DEFRA||Desk study exploring the potential to extend farm-level financial and technical benchmarking to cover the areas of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, animal welfare and agri-environment and management practices.|
Home R, Gerrard CL, Hempel C, Losták M, Vieweger A, Husák J, Stolze M, Hamm U, Padel S, Willer H, Vairo D and Zanoli R (2016) The quality of organic market data: providing data that is both fit for use and convenient. Organic Agriculture, online-first, pp. 1-14.
Moakes S, Lampkin N and Gerrard CL (2016) Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2014/15. Organic Research Centre, Newbury (as part of Organic Centre Wales).
Padel S (2016) Introduction to global markets and marketing of organic food. In: Deciphering Organic Foods: A Comprehensive Guide to Organic Food Consumption” (Karaklas I, Muehling D (Eds). Nova Publishing, Hauppauge, chapter 8, xxx-xxx. [In Press]
Zander K, Padel S and Zanoli R (2015) EU organic logo and its perception by consumers. British Food Journal, 117 (5), pp. 1506-1526.
Zanoli R, Gambelli D, Solfanelli F , Padel S (2014) Assessing the risk of non-compliance in UK organic agriculture: an econometric analysis, British Food Journal 116(8), p1369 – 1382.
Moakes S, Lampkin N and Gerrard CL (2015) Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2013/14. Organic Research Centre, Newbury (as part of Organic Centre Wales).
Gerrard C, Padel S, Lampkin N (2014) English Organic Producer Survey 2013. Report 2/2014. Organic Research Centre, Newbury.
Lampkin N, Measures M and Padel S (eds.) (2014) 2014 Organic Farm Management Handbook. (10th edition). Organic Research Centre, Newbury.
Lampkin N, Gerrard C, Moakes S (2014) Long term trends in the financial performance of organic farms in England and Wales, 2006/07-2011/12. Report 1/2014, Organic Research Centre, Newbury.
Moakes S, Lampkin N and Gerrard C (2014) Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2012/13. Aberystwyth University and Organic Research Centre, Aberystwyth and Newbury.
Zanoli R (2014) D7.1 Report on the synthesis of the key results and proposal for recommendations. Organic Data Network Report. Universitŕ Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Zanoli R (2014) Data Network for better European Organic Market Information - D7.1 Recommendations. Organic Data Network Report Universitŕ Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Gerrard CL, Vieweger A, Alisir L, Bteich M-R, Cottingham M, Feldmann C, Flechet D, Husak J, Losták M, Moreau C, Pugliese P, Rison N, Schaack D, Solfanelli F, Willer H and Padel S. (2014) D6.7 Report on the experience of conducting the case studies. ( Deliverable 6.7 of the OrganicDataNetwork project). OrganicDataNetwork project, c/o University of Ancona.
Gerrard CL, Janssen M, Smith L, Hamm U, Padel S (2013) UK consumer reactions to organic certification logos. British Food Journal, 115 (5), 727 -742.
Gerrard CL, Smith L, Pearce B, Padel S, Hitchings R and Measures M (2012) Public goods and farming. In: Farming for food and water security, 10. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews, no. 8380. Springer, Dodrecht Heidelberg New York London, pp. 1-22.
Gerrard CL; Moakes S and Padel S (2012) The use of Farm Business Survey data to compare the environmental performance of organic and conventional farms. International Journal of Agricultural Management, 2 (1), pp. 5-16.
Sander J, Stolze M and Padel S (2011) Use and efficiency of public support measures addressing organic farming – Final report - November 2011. Study conducted by the Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut (DE) together with the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FIBL, CH) and the Organic Research Centre (UK) on behalf of the DG Agriculture of the European Commission.
Gerrard CL, Smith L, Padel S, Pearce B, Hitchings R, Measures M and Cooper N (2011) OCIS Public Goods Tool Development. Organic Research Centre, Newbury.
Gerrard CL and Padel S (2011) Production costs across the EU in 2006. Organic Research Centre Bulletin, April 2011, 104, pp. 12-13.
Lampkin N (2011) Relevance of OECD agri-environmental measures for PES. In: Ottaviani, D. & Scialabba, N el-H (eds.) Payments for Ecosystem Services and Food Security. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome. pp.45-67.
Lampkin N, Bailey A, Lang B, Wilson P, Williams A, Sandars D, Fowler S, Gerrard C, Moakes S, Mortimer S, Nicholas P & Padel S (2011): The Potential for Extending Economic Farm-level Benchmarking to Environmental and Other Aspects of Farm Performance. Final report to Defra for Project No. DO0103. Organic Research Centre and Partners Newbury.
Lampkin N, Measures M and Padel S. (eds.) (2011) 2011/12 Organic Farm Management Handbook. (9th edition). Organic Research Centre, Newbury.
Moakes S and Lampkin N. (2011) Organic Farm Incomes in England and Wales 2009/10. Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Organic Research Centre, Aberystwyth, Newbury.
Padel S and Lampkin N (2011). Introduction to the concepts and principles of organic farming. In: KÖLLING, A. (ed.) Organic Food and Farming: A system approach to meet the sustainability challenge. Brussels: IFOAM EU Group. In www.ifoam-eu.org/workareas/policy/pdf/IFOAMEU_dossier_organic_farming_system_approach.pdf
Padel S, Smith L and Janssen M (2010) Are shoppers aware of Organic Certification logos? Organic Research Centre Bulletin, August 2010, pp. 4-5.
Zander K, Hamm U, Freyer B, Gössinger K, Hametter M, Naspetti S, Padel S, Stolz H, Stolze M and Zanoli R (2010) Farmer Consumer Partnerships - How to successfully communicate the values of organic food. Self-published, Department of Agricultural and Food Marketing, University of Kassel, Witzenhausen.
Padel S, Niggli U, Pearce B, Schlüter M, Schmid O, Cuoco E, Willer H, Huber M, Halberg N & Micheloni C (2010): Implementation Action Plan for organic food and farming research. TP Organics. IFOAM- EU Group, Brussels. Available at www.tporganics.eu.
Padel S, Roecklinsberg H and Schmid O (2009) The implementation of organic principles and values in the European Regulation for organic food. Food policy, 34, pp. 245-251.
Moakes S and Lampkin N(2009). Organic Farm Incomes in England And Wales 2007/08. Aberystwyth, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS).
Padel S and Zander K (2009) OrganicPlus values and their relevance to consumers: First results from the CORE FCP project. 1st Nordic Organic Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 18-20 May 2009. In: Frediksson, P and Ullven, K (Eds.) Towards increased sustainablity in the food supply chain. 1st Nordic Organic Conference, Centre for sustainable land use CUL at SLU, pp. 104-106.
Schmid O, Padel S, Halberg N, Huber M, Darnhofer I, Micheloni C, Koopmans C, Bügel S, Stopes C, Willer H, Schlüter M and Cuoco E (2009) Strategic Research Agenda for organic food and farming. TP Organics, Brussels.
Lampkin N, Schmid O, Dabbert S, Michelsen J and Zanoli R (eds.) (2008) Organic action plan evaluation toolbox (ORGAPET). Final output of the ORGAP research project(www.orgap.org) for the European Commission. Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, UK and Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, CH.
Jackson A, Moakes S, et al. (2008). Organic Farm Incomes in England And Wales 2006/07. Aberystwyth, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS).
Padel S and Goessinger K (2008) (Eds.): Farmer Consumer Partnerships. Communicating ethical values: a conceptual framework. CORE Organic Project Series Report, Aberystwyth and Vienna. http://orgprints.org/11028/
Padel S (2008) Values of organic producers converting at different times: Results of a focus group study in five European countries. International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (IJARGE), 7 (1), pp. 63-77.
Schader C, Sanders J, Nemecek T, Lampkin N and Stolze M (2008) A Modelling Approach for Evaluating Agri-Environmental Policies at Sector Level. Yearbook of Socioeconomics in Agriculture, 2008, pp. 93-132.
Lampkin N and Stolze M (2006) European Action Plan for Organic Food and Farming. Law, Science and Policy (Vol. 3), pp. 59-73.
Lampkin N, Fowler SM, Jackson A, Jeffreys I, Lobley M, Measures M, Padel S, Reed M, Roderick S and Woodward L (2006) Sustainability assessment for organic farming - integrating financial, environmental, social and animal welfare benchmarking. What can organic farming deliver? COR 2006, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 18-20 September 2006. In: Atkinson C, Ball B, Davies DHK, Rees R, Russell G, Stockdale E A, Watson C A, Walker R and Younie D (Eds.) Aspects of Applied Biology 79, What will organic farming deliver? COR 2006, Association of Applied Biologists, pp. 9-13.
- University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
- University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy
- Mediterranes Agrarökonomisches Institut, Bari, Italy
- FiBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Frick, Switzerland
- vTI - Institute of Farm Economics, Braunschweig, Germany
- University of Hohenheim,Stuttgart,Germany
- University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
- Institute for Marketecology, Weinfelden, Switzerland
- Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy
- Institute for Ethical and Environmental Certification, Bologna, Italy
- Ege University, Ýzmir, Turkey
- Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
- International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems, ICROFS, Tjele, Denmark
- IBERS - Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales
- Ceska Zemedelska Univerzita v Praze (CULS), Czech Republic
- Centro Internazionale Di Alti Studi Agronomici Mediterranei - Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo Di Bari (IAMB), Italy
- Agence Francaise Pour Le Developpment Et La Promotion De L'Agriculture Biologique (ABIO), France
- Agrarmarkt Informations Gesellschaft MBH (AMI), Germany
- Kai Kreuzer BMI, Germany
- Biocop Productos Biologicos S.A, Spain
- Ecozept GBR, Germany
- Mittetulundusuhing Okoloogiliste Tehnoloogiate Keskus Ceet, Estonia
- International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements European Union Regional Group (IFOAM EU), Sweden
- IMO-Control Sertifikasyon Ticaret Limited Sirketi, Turkey
- The Soil Association Limited, United Kingdom